Collective Defense by Common Property Regimes: the Rise and Fall of the Kibbutz
Liang Diao (Simon Fraser University)

Abstract : Common property regimes have long been considered inefficient and short lived, as they encourage high-productivity individuals to leave and shirking among those who stay. In contrast, kibbutzim -- voluntary common property settlements in Israel -- have lasted almost for a century. Recently, about 75% of kibbutzim abandoned the equal-sharing rule and paid differential salaries to members, based on their contributions. To explain the long persistence of the kibbutzim, as well as the recent kibbutz privatization, I develop a model that highlights the public defense provided by common property regimes. The model predicts that the privatization of common property regimes can be attributed to the decrease of external threats. To test this prediction, I construct a kibbutzim-level panel data set that contains the terrorist attacks near each kibbutz and the institutional status (i.e. preserving the equal-sharing rule or not) of each kibbutz in the years from 1986 to 2014. The empirical results show that an increase in the number of Israeli deaths near a kibbutz significantly decreases the probability that the kibbutz shift away from equal sharing.

A Stakeholder Theory Perspective on Opportunism in Franchising Networks
Aveed Raha (University of Vienna)
Ilir Hajdini (University of Vienna)
Josef Windsperger (University of Vienna)

Abstract : This study tackles opportunism in franchise chains through a multilateral stakeholder perspective, thus relaxing the traditional dyadic franchisor-franchisee perspective assumption. By employing the stakeholder salience framework, we argue that incorporating a stakeholder perspective in the franchisor’s decision making can increase relationship efficiency by mitigating franchisee opportunistic behavior. Specifically, the more the franchisor pursues a stakeholder orientation, the more support it provides to franchisees and the greater the openness of communication is encouraged between them, both resulting in higher relationship efficiency, due to less franchisee opportunism. Through structural equation modeling using data from four European countries, our empirical results provide evidence for our projections. Overall, this study offers new insights on the efficiency of relationships in franchise networks by applying a multilateral stakeholder perspective. Keywords: Franchisee opportunistic behavior, stakeholder salience, relationship efficiency, franchising

Boosting Engagement in Adaptive Water Governance: a Participatory Stakeholder Analysis
Mohammad Naser Reyhani (Humboldt University of Berlin)
Philipp Grundmann (Humboldt University of Berlin)

Abstract : Due to high mobility of water and over-segmentation of its sector, effective engagement of multiple stakeholders is crucial for adaptive water governance, particularly in countries facing water scarcity. The main objective of this paper is to enhance the potential contribution of stakeholder analysis to an effective stakeholder engagement by considering novel factors like stakeholders capacity for change, distinct formal and informal relationships, and perception of stakeholders. Our findings are based on a case study of the Zayandeh-Rud river basin (in central Iran) where suffers from growing socio-economic and environmental consequences of water scarcity. In this study we used a qualitative research design by conducting series of interviews, focus group discussions, workshops, and a questionnaire survey (N=156). Relying on common understanding on stakeholder engagement in water governance, the research design has been formed jointly, stakeholders have been identified and categorized based on their level of power, interest and capacity for change, and finally mapped by considering the type and degree of inter-relations using Social Network Analysis tool. An elaborated stakeholder map and social network proved to provide valuable findings for decision makers to understand: how roles and responsibilities are shared, how they interact, and how they can get engaged effectively? As an outcome, an adaptive process of Participatory Stakeholder Analysis with respective tasks has been introduced for formulation of engagement strategies. Our analysis extends the literatures on institutional change, and informs the debate over effective engagement process toward adaptive governance of resources.