Increasing Power System Reserve Capacities by Changing the Reserve Market Design: the Case of Electric Vehicle Fleets
Abstract: Abstract—Variable Resource Renewable Energy (VRRE) pen- etration has grown rapidly in recent years, creating a need for additional reserve power supplies. Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) have also been identified as reserve power providers, if market rules are favorably modified for these new units. This paper aims to show that the ability of DERs to provide reserve power is dependent on the market design considered, by focusing on primary frequency control and unidirectional Electric Vehicles (EVs). A simulation model is built for an EV fleet taking account of user behaviors. Simulations are conducted considering two market designs: symmetrical (where upward and downward reserves are procured jointly) and asymmetrical (where they are procured separately). In the asymmetrical configuration, the EV fleet performance is also compared on the basis of 1h and 4h market clearing periods. Results show that the EV fleet provides on average nine times as much power under an asymmetrical framework as under a symmetrical one. Similarly, reducing the product duration from 4h to 1h enables the EV fleet to provide more than two times as much reserve power. System operators could implement these favorable market rules for DERs, as it could maximize the provision of reserve power supplies by DERs.